Investment markets and key developments over the past week
- While Eurozone shares fell slightly, other major share markets rose over the last week helped by Fed dovishness. From their December low US shares are now up 21%, global shares are up 18% and Australian shares are up 14%. The underperformance of Australian shares in the rebound since December reflects the fact that they didn’t fall as much in last year’s share market slump and because the growth slump locally has weighed more on earnings expectations for Australian shares. Meanwhile bond yields continued their trend down over the last week, commodity prices were mixed with oil and gold up but copper and iron ore down and the $A rose slightly against a flat $US.
- How can shares rally and bond yields decline at the same time? Who is wrong? This is not unusual. The same occurred in 2016 with shares bottoming around February and bond yields not bottoming till around July/August. Its often referred to as being the “sweet spot” in the cycle where shares rebound from being undervalued and as investors start to anticipate stronger growth helped by easier central banks, but bonds are still responding to news of low inflation and expectations of lower interest rates for longer. This is exactly what we are seeing now. Bond yields may still have more downside but are likely to push up in the second half as global growth improves.
- Fed even more dovish both on rates and quantitative tightening. As expected, the Fed left rates on hold at its March meeting and while it revised down its growth forecasts a little bit it remains upbeat on the outlook and sees inflation staying around target. Consistent with its dovish tilt in January and inflation around target, the Fed remains “patient” on rates, its dot plot of rate hike expectations has been cut to no hike this year (from two hikes seen in December) with just one hike remaining next year and it has signalled that it will start slowing its balance sheet reduction (or quantitative tightening) from May and end it in September. In essence the Fed sees growth around potential, inflation around target, unemployment around NAIRU and rates around neutral so there is less pressure to do anything. So for now the Fed remains far less threatening for markets, but as we saw after a similar dovish tilt back in 2016 a return to a slightly more hawkish stance is a risk for later this year if as is expected, US growth picks up again against the backdrop of a still tight labour market.
Source: Bloomberg, AMP Capital
- Getting closer to a US/China trade deal, but does this mean that Trump would open up a new trade war starting with auto tariffs on Europe? The past week saw ongoing argy bargy around US/China trade negotiations particularly around when the US would remove the tariffs on imports from China but this is to be expected. But a deal still looks likely as its in both sides interests and Trump continues to say that “the deal is coming along nicely”. But a deal with China would beg the question of whether Trump will then turn his attention to trade with Europe starting with auto tariffs. However, even though the Commerce Department is reported to have provided a rationale for tariffs to be imposed on auto imports on “national security” grounds and this may cause some market angst as Trump has to mid May to decide to or not, our assessment is that he probably won’t: the Commerce Department report looks like a negotiating stance with Europe; America’s trade deficit with Europe is small compared to that with China; public and Congressional support for a trade war with Europe is low; most of Trump’s advisers are against it; the EU would retaliate and this would badly affect states that support Trump that export to Europe; it would be a new blow to confidence and share markets ahead of Trump’s 2020 re-election campaign.
- The Australian Federal Budget to be handed down on April 2nd will have three obviously overlapping aims: to provide a fiscal stimulus in the face of flagging growth; to reinforce the Government’s budget management credentials by keeping the budget on track for a surplus in 2019-20; and to help get the Government re-elected in a most likely May 11 or 18 Federal election. In all of this it has been helped by a revenue windfall mainly due to higher corporate tax receipts on the back of higher commodity prices (partly due to Vale’s problems in Brazil) but also higher personal tax collections due to stronger employment growth and lower welfare spending partly offset by reduced growth forecasts for 2019-20 and 2020-21. This is likely to see the budget running around $5bn better than expected in the December MYEFO for 2019-20. However, given the need for a fiscal boost and pre-election sweeteners the Government is likely to “spend” the bulk of the revenue windfall. Expect around an additional $3bn in personal tax cuts which along with the roughly $3bn pa already allocated for tax cuts in December’s MYEFO and the $3bn already legislated for following last year’s budget is expected to result in total personal income tax cuts of around $9bn from July which are likely to be skewed towards low- and middle-income earners. There is also likely to be extra spending on health and infrastructure. Key Budget numbers for 2019-20 are expected to be: a budget surplus of around $5bn after budget handouts (or $10bn before any stimulus), real GDP growth of 2.5%, inflation of 2.25%, wages growth of 2.75% and unemployment of 5%.
- The upside of the Australian Government’s Budget strategy is that the household sector will receive a boost just at the time it needs it given falling house prices and likely rising unemployment and of course a budget surplus is at last coming into sight after a record 11 years in deficit. The downside is that the tax cut boost to the household sector will like be small at around 0.5% of GDP, there is less assurance of a boost to the economy from tax cuts as opposed to “cheques in the mail” or increased government spending, the election means greater uncertainty about whether and when the stimulus will actually be delivered and the budget projections will come with a high level of uncertainty as the revenue boost from higher iron ore prices may prove temporary and slower economic growth will weigh on revenue. The stimulus is unlikely to be enough to head off the need for RBA rate cuts.
Major global economic events and implications
- US data was mostly positive adding to the view that while the March quarter may be weak, growth is likely to bounce back up again. A home builders conditions index was flat in March but current sales and expectations improved, manufacturing conditions in the Philadelphia region improved in March, the leading index rose more than expected in February and jobless claims fell.
Australian economic events and implications
- Australian jobs data added nothing to the debate about whether to cut rates or not. Unemployment fell, but this was due to reduced labour market participation. Employment slowed but this was after a huge surge in January so could just be noise. That said skilled job vacancies fell again in February consistent with falling ANZ job ads in pointing to slower jobs growth ahead. And the labor market is a lagging indicator. It is likely to see unemployment rising to 5.5% over the next year. There was a bit of good news with a rise in the CBA’s composite business conditions PMI for March, but this looks like normal volatility and at a reading of 50 it remains very weak.
Population growth remains strong – good for growth and good for underlying housing demand, but remember the focus should be on growth in GDP per person because that is more relevant for living standards. ABS data showed that population growth remained unchanged at a strong 1.6% over the year to the September quarter with 1 percentage point of that coming from migration and the rest from natural growth. Strong population growth naturally helps support demand in the economy and is a source of support for house prices (although a bunch of negative factors are dominating in the short term). But it also means that in Australia we have to have GDP growth in excess of 1.6% pa to grow GDP per person, whereas in Europe its just 0.2% and in Japan its -0.2% to do the same.
- Why will limiting negative gearing and halving the capital gains tax discount push up rents and push down property prices? Several studies have looked at this issue with similar conclusions since it became part of Labor Party policy in 2016. The answer is quite simple. If negative gearing is limited and capital gains tax increased then investors will demand a higher pre tax return to invest in property. Looked at in rental yield terms (ie annual rents divided by prices) SQM Research after examining international comparisons, what the tax changes would mean financially to taxpayers and the 1985-87 experience when negative gearing was briefly removed – estimate that rental yields are likely to rise around 1 percentage point over a 2-3 year period if the tax changes are made. This would occur via less investor demand in the property market causing some combination of lower property prices and rising rents (partly due to less property construction) until it becomes attractive to invest in property again. On their estimates average capital city property prices would fall 4 to 8% (but fall 7 to 12% in Sydney and fall 8 to 13% in Melbourne) and rents rise 7 to 12% in response over 3 years. Now this assumes two interest rates cuts and if that doesn’t occur the estimated fall in property prices is 5 to 12% relative to what otherwise would have occurred. A study last year by Riskwise Property Research and Wargent Advisory reached similar conclusions in terms of prices. Of course other things could reduce this impact like a new first home owners grant scheme and if rental yields have already increased anyway. Would property investors rush into to the market ahead of the changes if they are confirmed so they can be grandfathered? Maybe. But they may also decide not to because they would worry that their investment property will be worth less once the tax changes occur. Regardless of the merits of such changes, this issue is another drag on the residential property price outlook.
What to watch over the next week?
- In the US, data releases are expected to show a fall back in housing starts after January’s surge, but continued modest gains in home prices and a slight further rise in consumer confidence (all due Tuesday), a slight improvement in the trade balance for January (Wednesday), a downwards revision to December quarter GDP growth (Thursday) from 2.6% annualised to 2.4%, a fall in pending home sales (Thursday) but a rise in new home sales (Friday), a modest gain in January consumer spending (also Friday) along with core private consumption deflator inflation staying at 1.9% year on year.
- Eurozone economic confidence data for March to be released Thursday will be watched for signs of stabilisation after falling over the last year and core inflation (Friday) is likely to have remained stuck around 1%yoy.
- Japanese jobs data for February (Friday) is likely to have remained strong but industrial production is likely to bounce.
- In Australia, ABS job vacancy data for February due Thursday is expected to show some signs of softening consistent with the ANZ job ads survey, and private credit growth (Friday) is likely to have remained modest in February with housing investor credit remaining weak. Public addresses by RBA officials Ellis and Kent on Tuesday and Wednesday will be watched for any clues on the interest rate outlook.
Outlook for investment markets
- Share markets – globally & in Australia – have run hard and fast from their December lows and are vulnerable to a short-term pullback. But valuations are okay, signs of improving global growth are emerging, monetary and fiscal policy has become more supportive of markets and the trade war threat is receding all of which should support decent gains for share markets through 2019 as a whole.
- Low yields are likely to see low returns from bonds, but they continue to provide an excellent portfolio diversifier. Expect Australian bonds to outperform global bonds.
- Unlisted commercial property and infrastructure are likely to see a slowing in returns over the year ahead. This is particularly likely to be the case for Australian retail property.
- National capital city house prices are expected to fall another 5-10% into 2020 led again by 15% or so price falls in Sydney and Melbourne on the back of tight credit, rising supply, reduced foreign demand, price falls feeding on themselves and uncertainty around the impact of tax changes under a Labor Government.
- Cash and bank deposits are likely to provide poor returns as the RBA cuts the official cash rate to 1% by year end.
- The $A is likely to fall into the $US0.60s as the gap between the RBA’s cash rate and the US Fed Funds rate will likely push further into negative territory as the RBA moves to cut rates. Being short the $A remains a good hedge against things going wrong globally.